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Biology Learning Targets

Science, BIOLOGY

ALT 1 - Ecosystems and Biodiversity

Explains how ecosystems respond to disturbances and interactions.

AST 1.1 - Investigating Biodiversity  :  Plan and conduct an investigation that uses mathematical representations to support explanations about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales. (HS-LS2-2)

AST 1.2 - Human Impact  :  AST 1.2 Human Impact: Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity. (HS-LS2-7)

AST 1.3 - Informational Text  :  Read and use informational texts about ecological interactions and biodiversity.

AST 1.4 - Carrying Capacity  :  Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales. (HS-LS2-1)

AST 1.5 - Stability and Change  :  Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem. (HS-LS2-6)

ALT 2 - Biomolecules

Explains how molecules are made and used in cells.

AST 2.1 - Investigating Enzymes  :  Analyze and interpret data about reaction rates to make conclusions about enzymes.

AST 2.3 - Informational Texts  :  Read and use informational texts about cells or biomolecules to answer relevant questions.

AST 2.4 - Biomolecules  :  Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules. (HS-LS1-6)

AST 2.5 - DNA to Protein  :  Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins, which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. (HS-LS1-1)

ALT 3 - Cells to Organisms

Explains how cells are organized into organisms.

AST 3.1 - Investigating Homeostasis  :  Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. (HS-LS1-3)

AST 3.3 - Informational Text  :  Read and use informational texts about cells and organisms.

AST 3.4 - Cell Development  :  Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms. (HS-LS1-4)

AST 3.5 - Physiological Interactions  :  Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. (HS-LS1-2)

ALT 4 - Genomics

Explains how genes and the environment interact to determine traits in populations.

AST 4.1 - Investigating DNA and Traits  :  Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. (HS-LS3-1)

AST 4.3 - Informational Text  :  Read and use informational texts about genetics to answer relevant questions.

AST 4.4 - Genetic Variation  :  Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors. (HS-LS3-2)

AST 4.5 - Traits in Populations  :  Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population. (HS-LS3-3)

ALT 5 - Evolution

Explains that all life is related and that populations change over time.

AST 5.1 - Investigating Trait Frequency  :  Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait. (HS-LS4-3)

AST 5.3 - Informational Text  :  Read and use informational texts about evolution.

AST 5.4 - Natural Selection  :  Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. (HS-LS4-2)

AST 5.5 - Adaptation  :  Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. (HS-LS4-4) (Cross-ref: Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce.) (HS-LS2-8))

AST 5.6 - Speciation  :  Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. (HS-LS4-5)

AST 5.7 - Evidence for Evolution  :  Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. (HS-LS4-1)

ALT 6 - Carbon Cycle

Constructs a model to demonstrate how carbon is cycled.

AST 6.1 - Investigating Carbon Cycle  :  Develop a quantitative model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. (HS-LS2-5 and HS-ESS2-6)

AST 6.3 - Informational Text  :  Read and use informational texts about the cycling of carbon.

AST 6.4 - Photosynthesis  :  Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. (HS-LS1-5)

AST 6.5 - Respiration  :  Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy. (HS-LS1-7)

AST 6.6 - Climate Change  :  Analyze geoscience data to make the claim that one change to Earth's surface can create feedbacks that cause changes to other Earth systems. (HS-ESS2-2)

ALT 7 - Ecological Matter and Energy

Explains how energy flows and matter cycles in ecosystems.

AST 7.2 - Human Impact  :  Evaluate, and refine a technological solution of reducing impacts of human activities on natural systems. (HS-ESS3-4) OR Sustainability: Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity (HS-ESS3-3)

AST 7.3 - Informational Text  :  I can read and use informational texts about human impact on the environment.

AST 7.4 - Eutrophication  :  Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (HS-LS2-3)

AST 7.5 - Trophic Levels  :  Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem. (HS-LS2-4)

AST 7.6 - Biogeography  :  Construct an argument based on evidence about the simultaneous coevolution of Earth’s systems and life on Earth. (HS-ESS2-7)

ALT 8 - Inquiry

Use the inquiry process as a controlled and data drive means to answer scientific questions.

AST 8.1 - Formulate the Question  :  Based on observations and science principles, I can formulate a question or hypothesis that can be investigated through the collection and analysis of relevant information.

AST 8.2 - Design the Investigation  :  I can design and conduct a controlled experiment, field study, or other investigation to make systematic observations about the natural world, including the collection of sufficient and appropriate data.

AST 8.3 - Collect and Present Data   :  I can collect, organize, and display sufficient and appropriate data to facilitate scientific analysis and interpretation.

AST 8.4 - Analyze and Interpret Results   :  I can summarize and analyze data to draw a valid and supported conclusion to communicate the findings of an investigation, and identify uncertainties.

ALT 9 - Engineering

Use the engineering design process as an iterative and productive means of problem solving

AST 9.1 - Identify and Define the Problem  :  I can describe a problem to be solved through the process of engineering, describe the relevant principles that relate to the problem, and identify appropriate criteria and constraints for a solution.

AST 9.2 - Generate Possible Solutions  :  I can evaluate and select an engineering solution from a range of possible options and defend that solution for testing using trade-offs, criteria, and constraints.

AST 9.3 - Test Solution(s) and Collect Data  :  I can test solution(s) by collecting, organizing, and displaying data to facilitate the analysis and interpretation of results.

AST 9.4 - Analyze and Interpret Results  :  I can summarize and analyze data, evaluate the proposed solution, identify uncertainties, and suggest design improvements.

AST 9.5 - Evaluate a Solution  :  Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts (HS-ETS1-3)